(1). Breeding of High-Quality Rice Varieties and the Analysis of Rice Quality
The focus of our rice breeding program aims at quality. There are varieties TC194, TC195 and TCW196 released in the recent 5 years. Among these, we applied TC194 for plant variety right in 2011. We had completed the act of authorization of TK9 exclusive license in the foreign country (Japan) in 2010, with the license fee NTD 5001,000. About the analysis of rice quality, we are in charge of both physical and chemical properties analyses of new lines and breeding materials from japonica and indica rice regional experiments, and these data would be provided to breeders for further selections, thus choosing the potential lines for regional experiments or naming of new varieties. During 1999-2013, we’ve provided quality analyses data of 12,643 samples, assisting the naming of new varieties such as TC194, TN13, ML1, TT32, TN77, TN79, ML2, TN15, TT33, TC195 and TCW196 (names arranged according to time of release). Moreover, we had technology transferred “bran oil soap manufacturing technique” in 1999 and 2003.
(2). Breeding Research for Diversified Applications of Rice Nutrition
The primary results of GABA content screening including the establishment of GABA and antioxidant enzymes contents screening SOP. We discovered that the amount of GABA would accumulate during germination. Somehow to the certain degree the content would then decrease, and the time it takes to reach the highest amount of GABA within different varieties varies. Comparing the pre-germination and the highest amount of GABA within different varieties, TK9 and TCS10 would be most suitable varieties for making germinated brown rice products.
(3).Molecular Assisted Breeding of Bacterial Leaf Blight-Resisted Rice Variety
We developed molecular markers link to rice bacterial leaf blight resistance through selections and heredity analysis, hoping to establish selection methods of bacterial leaf blight-resisted genes in early generation, which would help shorten breeding process. The results of bacterial leaf blight assessments in nurseries were about 200 new varieties or lines from extension stations every year. The results of molecular assisted breeding of bacterial leaf blight resistance was accelerating the breeding process by introducing resistance genes from resisted materials to our varieties.
(4). Improvement of Rice Cultivation Techniques
The effects of seeds amount in seedling trunk, distance between plants, and varieties on rice quality were surveyed. According to the results, the both economic, profitable and good-quality suggested plant distance and seedling density were 21cm and 240g per trunk, respectively. The researches of harvesting period effect on rice quality suggested that the best harvest periods were 28-42 days after heading. Later or earlier harvest would have bad impacts on both yielding and quality. The outcome of rice storage researches ensure that chilling does slower the decrease of rice quality during storage, and the effects varies among varieties. The primary suggestions on rice freshness tests was comprehensive diagnosis including major index-single seed freshness test and secondary indexes such as pH, alkali spreading value, degree of rice stickiness, and value of freshness.
(5). Organic Rice Cultivation Techniques
The results of screening of rice varieties suitable for organic cultivation in the 1st season were TN11, KS145, TT30, TK16 and TCS10; and in the 2nd season were TN11, TK16, TN71, TT30 and TCS10. At the aspect of developing organic cultivating materials and equipment, we found that applying 4 tons of carbonated husks every hectare would help reduce rice sheath blight. Besides, our station has set up professional organic cultivation area in Chahwa county (Tien-chung, Pi-tou and Erh-shui) and Taichung County (Ta-chia and Wai-pu). The yieldings in some regions are even better than conventional cultivation, and at the same time with better milling and tasting quality.