(1). The Breeding of Table and Wine Grape in Taiwan
In order to increase variety diversity and to promote industry development, the aim of this study is to select suitable varieties for table grape as well as wine grape in Taiwan. The grape breeding in Taichung DARES were obtained from 90 combinations in the past five years, and 439 hybrid grape seedlings planted in field. The combinations 200905-1 and 200919-19 total soluble solids were over 18 °Brix and had the same berry weight as ‘Kyoho’, therefore they had potential to be new table-grape verities. In wine grape breeding, line L06305 and line K0829 had potential to be new wine-grape verities. The variety testing of those lines were begin in 2009 and 2012, and in line L06305 plant variety right was granted by COA in 2013. The line K0829 variety manual still writing and the new variety right will be proposed in 2014.
(2). Effect of Night Lighting on Shoot, Development and Fruit Set of Grapevine
In order to produce grape in April to May or in July, treated with LED or energy efficient white bulb 6 hours to increase growth and development. Treatment timing depended on vines vigor. On the strong vigor vineyard, the LED can significantly increased shoot length by 27.3cm compare to control with lamb distance 3 ´ 6m and lighting started from near flowering. On the other hand, the weaker one lighting started when shoot about 30cm. Results showed that lighting can increase shoot length by 19-30cm, and LED is significant effect than energy efficient bulb. All lighting treatments increased shoot growth and development but no effect on fruit set at field study.
(3). Studies on the Control of Bearing Shoot in ‘Kyoho’ Grapevines
In Taiwan, the sprouting shoot of ‘Kyoho’ grapevine after forcing culture treatment was the bearing shoot on season, which development status could make a significant influence to the fruiting and quality of grape in the future. The aims of this study was to make sure what kinds of fertilizer among phosphate, potash and boric acid was effective to control shoot elongation in potted and field experiments. Results was shown that a single foliar spray of potassium dihydrogen phosphate 300x or boric acid 800x were not significantly in shooting control, however the potassium carbonate 400x was better for shooting control. In addition, application of superphosphate 100x with boric acid 800x could significantly reduce the node number and come to the elongation control in length.
(4). The aroma composition analysis of horticultural crops
The aroma composition of horticultural crops were different by varieties and development stage. Free volatile flavor compounds of grapes and chrysanthemum were characterized by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry with headspace-solid phase microextraction. The most abundant volatile compounds of grapes included esters and aldehydes. The most abundant volatile compounds of chrysanthemum included terpenes and ketones. Four and two varieties of grapes and chrysanthemum in different maturation stages were analyzed. The free volatile flavor composition of grape and chrysanthemum changed with maturation.
(5). Improving Fruit Quality in 'Ponkan' Mandarin ( Citrus reticulata Blanco)
'Ponkan' mandarin was an important fruit industry in central Taiwan. For exporting process, it had to be harvested earlier and treated with low-temperature quarantine. However, half-green 'Ponkan' could not turn to orange color after ethylene-degreening and storage treatment. From our study results, fruit before harvesting treated with 40 to 400 ppm ethephon could increase the rate of coloration and not affect total soluble sugar content and acidity. But, it would increase the rate of fruit drop by 200 and 400 ppm ethephon treatment. Besides, ‘Ponkan’tree sprayed 200 to 400 ppm ethephon and 300 ppm NAA would result serious leaves fell, but 40 ppm ethephon treatment didn’t.
(6). Improving Fruit Quality of Guava by Planting in Simple Net House
A net house was built and the growth of guava fruits that bagged and not bagged were observed and analyzed. The preliminary results showed that the growth of the bagged fruits in the net-house was better than that in the open field, and the TTS was slightly higher. The growth of the un-bagged fruits in the net-house was no good as compared to those bagged, the fruit were smaller and the appearance was inferior. It seemed that the lower temperature in the net-house will support a good growing condition for the fruits in the bag, so to produce fruits of higher quality.
(7). Improvement of Guava Fruit Quality by Adjusting the Leaf-Fruit Ratio
Different fruit thinning and shoot tipping treatments were conducted after autumn-fruit bagging of guava, and the influences on the fruit growth and quality were investigated. The treatments were cutting the fruiting shoots into 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 leaves that left in tip end of the fruit. The results showed that the fruit weight was higher as the leaf number increased, and the shoots that contained 12 to 16 leaves before the fruit had better fruit size, whereas the sugar contents of the winter-fruits was low.
(8). The Breeding of Low-chilling Requirement Pear in Taiwan
Pear hybridization (Ruyu pear × Yokoyama pear) produced 459 nursery plants in 2007, some plantlets could flowered in 2010. The fruit weight of the hybrid progeny below 300 g were 71%, from 300 to 400 g were 24%, more than 400 g were 5%, and total soluble content between 10 to 14 °Brix were 71%, most progeny belonging to the medium maturity types, the color of fruit peel were green or brown. Hybridization progeny obtained 211 seedlings in 2010, and were planted in spacing of 1 × 3m.
(9).Improvement of New Varieties Pear Storage Capacity
The important cultivation work of new varieties of pears ( Fu Lai pear, Full Lucky pear and Lucky Green pear ) was improving soil pH. The pear orchard recommended to improve soil pH above 7, fruits harvested can be refrigerated for 2 to 3 months. 9 -year-old plants in Dongshi area applied N 327.6 g, P 2O 5 225 g, K 2O 240 g per year per plant, which regulated the plant growth and not so much water sprout branches, pome produced can be refrigerated for 2 to 3 months. In the experiment of young fruit sprayed with calcium compounds, 1% aqueous solution of calcium nitrate in the flowering of young fruit sprayed once a week for 6 weeks, The water core symptom of full Lucky pear fruit can be reduced, but 1% aqueous solution of calcium lactate had no improving effect.
(10). Studies on Forcing Culture and Enhancing Fruit Quality
Pitaya is a tropical fruit, which has specific flavor and color. It is a potential fruit in fresh market commodity of Taiwan, but the closely flushes of flower-bud in summer is a problem for pitaya industry. There were 14 flushes of flower buds formed since May to September in 2012, and each flush interval occurred between 5 to 23 days. In this experiment, remova1 of all the flower buds of the shoots could not induce the formation of the next flush flower buds earlier.