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Vegetable Research

(1). Cabbage breeding

In cabbage breeding, heat tolerance ‘Taichung No. 1’ and ‘Taichung No. 2’ were developed. Especially, ‘Taichung No. 2’ had great heat tolerance that can vbe cultivate from April to Oct. in lower land Taiwan. Besides, in order to breed round shape cabbage for exporting, varieties from Indonesia and India were collected and then processed hybrid segregation and heat tolerance introduction. 9 of 12 germplasm flowered after 2 month vernalization at 5oC, and others need 4 month low temperature. One germplasm had male-sterilize characteristic and were hybrid with heat tolerant materials. Besides, two round shape cabbage hybrids were selected from 22 combinations

(2). Chinese kale breeding

In Chinese kale breeding, stalk used Chinese kale OP variety ‘Taichung No. 1’ was developed. It can be harvested in 58 days after transplanting and with sweet taste and high quality. Besides, segregation and selection of hybrid progeny of 2 stalk used cultivar and ‘Taichung No. 1’ were conducted and then preceded mass selection to breed late-bolting, high quality OP variety. Besides, 116 lines were kept selfing for purification and finishing combining ability evaluation of 44 hybrids and selected 4 lines. Those lines will multi-propagate and compare with commercial cultivar to evaluate their characteristics and extension potential.

(3). Pod pea and common bean breeding

Pod pea new variety ‘Taichung No. 16’ was developed and got Taiwan’s Plant Variety in 2013. 'Taichung No. 16' had resistance to powdery mildew disease that can reduce pesticide usage during cultivation and then decline the pesticide residue. Besides, stringless common bean 'Taichung No. 5' was also bred and got new variety also in 2013. This new variety had higher yield and better environmental tolerance.

(4). Virus resistant wax gourd breeding

In wax gourd breeding, 4 lines included Taichung select No. 4 were evaluated and recorded their horticultural characteristics. Taichung select No. 4 had better performance in growth vigor, virus infection tolerance, fruit weight, and fruit number. Inoculation test results showed Taichung select No. 4 was not infected by ZYMV while other Bai-Dou and Fong-Yuan local line such as regional and variety plant characteristic test will be conducted for new plant new variety application.

(5). Early mature celery breeding

In celery breeding, three lines, Taichung select No. 1 and control cultivar ‘Ming Fong Shin Ton’ were processed regional trail and evaluated their horticultural characteristics. Taichung select No. 1 had better performance such as plant height, shoot fresh weight, bolting rate and yield that suitable for breeding goal and its bolting rate was also better than control cultivar. Therefore, line Taichung select No. 1 had chosen for plant new variety application.

(6). Heat tolerant radish breeding

In radish breeding, the root fresh weight, root length, root width, sugar content of elite line 9911F-9 showed the better or insignificant different performance than control variety ‘Yun-Xing’ and black rot caused by calcium deficiency was not happened. It also had better resistance when seedling inoculated Xanthimonas campestris pv. campestris, Rhizoctonia solani, and Peronospora brassicae Gaumann. Therefore, 9911F-9 was selected for plant patent application in the future. Besides, elite plants were kept selfing for purification and processing test-cross to understand their combining ability and screen better hybrids.

(7). Heat tolerant broccoli breeding

In broccoli breeding, 31 hybrids were selected and their parents were kept selfing for purification. Besides, seedling photosynthetic rate, chlorophyll inflorescence (Fv/Fm), and total chlorophyll content decreased under 40/35oC while transpiration rate, stomata conductance, hydrogen peroxide (H 2O 2) content, malondialdehyde (MDA) content, antioxidant enzyme SOD, CAT and GR increased. Fv/Fm was suggested as physiological index for heat tolerant selection, and ‘WenFo’ had better heat tolerance. For micro-structural observation, instead of ‘ChingHua’, 'WenFo' had slightly shrinkage lower epidermis mesophyll cell, functional stomata, and more developed vascular bundle tissue under 40/35oC for 4 days. In addition, heat stress during flower differnation stage delayed the days to visible flower head and increased the abnormal flower head rate such as uneven appearance, loose head, leafy petal, and brown flower bud. But it did not significantly affect flowering rate and leaf number below flower head.

(8). Establishment of Management Model for Organic Water Bamboo Cultivation – Fertilization

This study was to evaluate quality and yield of organic water bamboo with different primary fertilizer, compost and planting method. According to the results, direct planting resulted in more tillers and higher yield in the first harvest, but the plant height was lower. However, direct planting had less growth period and longer harvest period than transplant treatment. After application of carbonized rice husk, the water bamboo plants significantly increased its fresh weight, dry weight, shoots length and plant potassium content, but phosphorus content was significantly lower than the control. There was no significant difference in yield between control and carbonized rice husk treatment. Moreover, plants treated with compost had higher yield than efficient organic fertilization treatment. Although the first cropping yield of compost treatment was lower than another, but higher in second cropping. The total yield of year compost treatment was higher than another by275.5kg/0.1ha.

(9). Establishment of Management Model for Organic Water Bamboo Cultivation – Disease Protection

The tropic of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of prevention disease and pest by different organic materials included sulfur, soda and KHCO 3 etc. According to the results that spraying sulfur once every 7 days after planting water had good efficiency for rust prevention. The effect of organic materials to prevent brown spot was conducted in Petri dishes. The 20% garlic plant extracts had better antibacterial result. Charcoal rice shell did not significantly increase in abiotic resistance, but increase in 5.7 to 12.6% yield. Moreover, spraying mineral oil can control Greenslender planthopper density.

(10). Development of Organic Plugtray Seedling in Tomato

T he topic of this study was to investigate the effect of different phosphorous acid concentration (500x and 1000x dilution) and organic liquid fertilizer concentration (100x and 200x dilution ) on the growth of organic tomato plug tray seedlings. The results showed that using organic liquid fertilizer concentration with 100x dilution had better seedling index in spring crop (0.092) and fall crop (0.099) than conventional cultural method (0.079 and 0.088). Seedling treated with phosphorous acid did not show the symptom of Phytophthora blight but there is no significant different thing concentration. Both treatments did not affect seedling growth after transplanting. Therefore, using TDARES modified organic liquid fertilizer with optimal cultivation management can improve the quality of seedling, and then the results can apply as a suggestion for organic tomato seedling culture.

(11). Development of Cultivated and Storage Technologies for Ginger and Taro

Decrease of commercial value in ginger caused by dehydration and shrinkage after harvest. According to the study, a monolithic of vacuum packed in 5oC had the best appearance, but the moldy smell still happened after 7 days storage. Nonwoven fabric and PE bag package did not result in moldy smell and maintained ginger quality for 16 days, however, there were wrinkled of skin and slight browning existed. Besides, ginger had better shooting performance treated with changed temperature and 100x citric acid that resulting larger and optimal amount of buds than the other. The stratifications using sawdust, newspaper and coconut fiber had best results of taro that could be storage more than four weeks at 5oC The number of removed leaf did not affect on the yield of taro, but significantly lower the starch content.

(12). Research and Development of Key Technologies for Vertical Cultivation of Coriander in Protected Facility

In order to overcome the price dramatically changes of coriander in summer Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to develop the vertical cultivation system in protected house for coriander. Coriander under 800 to 1000 μmole.m 2.s -1 PPFD light intensity had better photosynthesis rate. However, there was about 1,600μmole.m 2.s -1 PPFD in summer greenhouse and the average temperature can be 44.6oC. Two commercial varieties with heat tolerance and high yield was selected. Moreover, seedling plates had better yield and quality for container cultivation in vertical system. The seeds pretreated with soaking, cold storage and priming increased germination rate. Coconut fiber plus peats and reused old substrate did not affect the germination rate and growth of coriander, but germination rate was decreased when using rice husk. Application of N-P-K 20-10-20 liquid fertilizer twice a week was recommended. Although slow-released fertilizer significantly enhanced growth of coriander as well as nitrate content. Bottom irrigation was the better way for water application, because high cost in drip irrigation and plant lodging and leaf burn caused by foliar spray.

(13). Antioxidant and Functional Content Development of Cabbage

The topic of this study was to evaluate the effect of kinds, portion, fertilizer, low temperature storage and cooking on the antioxidant capacity and functional content of cabbage. The results showed the antioxidant capacity was highest in ornamental cabbage followed by leafy cabbage, purple head cabbage, seedling cabbage, sprout cabbage, savory cabbage and green head cabbage. The antioxidant capacity and vitamin C content was increased after 1 week 2oC storage and then decrease when the storage prolonged. Nitrogen had significant effect that scavenging DPPH ability, FRAP value and vitamin C content decreased within the increasing N concentration. For cooking method experiment, cabbage cooking by steaming had better antioxidant capacity and functional content, followed by oil stir frying, microwaving and water boiling. After 5 min water boiling, the scavenging DPPH ability (2.39%) was decreased 3/4 amount comparing with non-cooking treatment.