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Floriculture Research

(1). Studies on the growth of the mini-gladilous

The 10 introduced mini-gladioli cultivars s have under carried out the evaluation and selection for horticultural charecter and using open pollination. It is hope to develop suitable cultivars under Taiwan condition and further extend its economical value and development potential. The mini-gladiolus grown at Yuchih experiment field have better performance than at lowland area, in terms of length of flower stalk, flower stem, blooming percentages, vase life as well as leaf quality. The flower of mini-gladioli have complex and shining color, is suitable for bouquet, broach flower, landscape gandening. It provides multiple choices for local consumers.

(2). Effect of Pinching Treatment on Growth and Cut-flower Quality in Standard Carnation

The materials of this experiment were use standard carnation plug-seedling imported from the Netherlands. Experimental cultivars include: 'Gaudina', 'Dona' and 'Malaga', and plant growth situation were in greenhouse of Taichung District Agricultural Research and Extension Station. The environmental temperatures was measured and recorded during experimental period. Treatments are non-pinching, single pinching and double pinching. Results showed the pinching treatments delayed production days and increased number of branches. The yield of flower stems indicated single pinching was more than non-pinching and double pinching. The orders of weights, stem diameters and flower diameters among these cultivars: non-pinching > single pinching > double pinching. For reducing the seedlng cost and maintaining the quality of cut-flower in standard carnation, this experiment suggests single pinching treatment could be a system for commercial produition.

(3). Effect of Mulching on the Growth of Eustoma grandiflorum

Field experiment was conducted to study the effect of polyester fabric mulching on the growth of winter production of three cultivars of Eustoma grandiflorum- 'Voyage green', 'Diamond peach' and ‘Chu cream’. The results indicate the soil temperature and water content are more stable in mulching treatment than those of in non-mulching. Besides, cut eustoma flower of mulching treatment has better performance on height, leaf area, fresh weight, stem diameter, number of branch, chlorophyll content, flower size and vase life. Furthermore, the number of leaf parch blight of Eustoma grandiflorum significantly decreased by mulching treatment, and the harvest period is shorter and 10 days earlier. As a result, using polyester film mulching can increase cut flower quality and characteristics performance of Eustoma grandiflorm.

(4). Effect of time to deflask on the growth and development of Oncidium Hybrids Seedlings

Appropriate cultural duration is an important factor affecting the growth and development of deflasked plantlets. The objective of this study was to find optimal time to deflask according to the growth situation of seedlings at 90 days after deflask in 4 Oncidium cultivars. For the 4 cultivars tested, the plantlets had the worst growth efficiency was found when deflasked 8 weeks after subculture. Fresh weights of Onc. Golden shower ‘Red spots’ and Onc. Gower Ramsey plantlets were highest when deflasked 16 weeks after subculture. But 90 days after transplanting, the increase of fresh weight of plantlets was higher if they were deflasked 12 weeks after subculture. Growth increment of Onc. Sharry Baby ‘Sweet Fragrance’ and Onc. Tdares Golden Mine ‘Taichung No.1 Gold Coins’ plantlets was highest when deflasked 16 weeks after subculture. Fresh weights of plantlets were increased by the increasing of subculture weeks.

Subculture with fewer subculture weeks, plantlets were too young to acclimate to the ex vitro environment, resulting in lower growth increment and lower assimilate accumilation. Growth of plantlets cultured in 25 ℃ day temperature, 20 ℃ night temperature, 300μmol m -2s -1, and 12 hours light cycle was better than that of control. Culture environment affected greatly the survival and growth of deflasked plantlets.

(5).Effects of LED Light Sources on the Flower Inhibition of Chrysanthemum

LED lights 10W red (10R), 7W red with 3W blue (7R3B), 5W red with 5W blue (5R5B) and 5W red with 2W blue (5R2B) were tested for flowering inhibition of Chrysanthemum. The 23W 110V and 23W 220V yellow energy saving blubs were used as control. The height of light installation was 180 cm. Light intensity of 10R was higher than 7R3B and 5R5B. The input of light intensity of blue light was less than red light. Light intensity on ground under the 10R LED was higher than 23W 110V and 23W 220V blubs, while less than same blubs at the 250 cm away in horizontal. Light bulbs were installed on the 4 corners of a 3 m square and lighting was setup from 10 pm to 2 am. For variety “Fen-Lan-Xiou-Fen”, days to flowering of square center of 10R treatment was 54 days, while was 47 - 51 days of the other bulb treatments. For variety Bai-Tein-Xin, days to flowering was from 42 - 44 and the inhibition efforts of 10R treatment was better than others. For variety “Huang-Gin-Gin”, it was similar with the other two varieties. The result of 10R was the best.

(6). Effects of Gibberellin (GA 3) on the Growth and Flowering Performance of Eustoma grandiflorum

The cultivation of Eustoma grandiflorum in Taiwan becomes more important. It is due to its crowded haresting in May as to result in lower marketing price. Moreover, the popular summer cultivar of lisianthus obtained faster growth character and earlier to reach flowering stage in the summer season. As a result, to remove the flower bud by hand become crucial. Inorder to increase plant height and regulate the second-flowering spikes of lisianthus, this experiment is aimed to identify the effects of gibberellic acid (GA 3) with different concentration on the performance of Eustoma grandiflorum. The results indicated that spraying gibberellin (GA 3) 100 mg/L on the rosetted plants of Eustoma grandiflorum ‘Voyage Green’ can break rosette dormancy and have earlier bolting with 15 cm higher height and longer internode length. However, spraying gibberellin treatment cannot regulate flora transition and shortening the flowering intiation. In addition, application of GA 3 50 mg/L on summber cultiva ‘Carmen Blue’, also increase plant height and internode length. Moreover, it also causes leaf elongation and has a bit larger flower diameter and more number of nodes. To sum up, foliar application of gibberellins can make lisianthus grows more equally and increase plant height. But if the concentration is too high, it may cause to the decrease of fresh weight and thinner stem diameter. Therefore, foliar application of 50 mg/L~100 mg/L GA 3 on Eustoma grandiflorum is effective for increasing inter-node length and height, but spraying GA3 cannot promote flowering.

(7). Effect of Different Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Potassium Ratio of Fertilizers on the Seedling Growth of Oncidium

Reasonable allotment of elements are necessary for growth and development in plants. Shortage or over dosage of elements uptaking will affect plant growth adversely. The state of nutrient in seedlings will affect following growth, even flower. The objective of this study was to find out the optimum ratio of fertilizer for seedlings of Onc. Gower Ramsey ‘Honey Angel’ and Onc in different growth stages. Tdares Golden Mine ‘Taichung No. 1 Gold Coins’ after fertilization. It shows harmful to plants when total concentration of nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium was over 500 ppm. Growth performance will rise by increasing of content of nitrogen, it indicates the effort of nitrogen was more serious than phosphorus, and potassium treatment. Conventional management and less nitrogen processing are still more better for the growth of plants between different treatments.

(8). Effects of Foliar Application of Cytokinin (N6-BA) on the Growth and Morphological Changes of Summer Eustoma grandiflorum

The cut flowers of Eustoma grandiflorum in summer were usually lower quality with fewer lateral branches, less flower number and thinner stem diameter, than that in cool seasons. Many related researches has focused on the cytokinin (N6-Benzyladenine, N6-BA) application on the flora and fruit crops to induce flora initiation, lateral branching and flower numbers. In this experiment is aimed to investigate the effect of N6-BA on the growth and morphological performances of Eustoma grandiflorum ‘Luna Rose’ and ‘Ceremony Blue Flash’. The result indicated that the twice foliar application of 10 mg/L N6-BA on Eustoma grandiflorum could induce flower initiation, and the flora buds, branch forking and stem thickness is also increased, but the upper internodes became shorter and lower in leaf chlorophyll content. The efforts of N6-BA application on Eustoma grandiflorum were found variable among cultivars. Eustoma grandiflorum ‘Luna Rose’ has better branch forking character, and the N6-BA with 20 mg/L resulted in stunting plant and shorter in upper internodes, leaf shrinking and deformed flower as well. As a result, the N6-BA application should be depending on the branch forking performance in Eustoma cultivars.

(9). Effects of shading percentage on the plant growth and cut flower quality of Eustoma grandiflorum cultivated in spring and summer

The seedling after transplanting needs shading, sprinkling and flooding to keep growing normally and avoid rosetting. However, the shading percentage and shading period are still not clear. In order to investigate the effects of different shading percentage of black shade net on Eustoma grandiflorum plant growth and cut flower quality, this research experiment used 50%, 70%, 80% and 95% shading net one month after seedling transplanting into field and investigate the growth situation. The result showed that applying 80% shading net one month after transplanting can decrease daily highest temperature 5.8 ℃ compared to control group, and the daily highest light intensity was 7000 lux. Shading can reduce the plant damage caused by high temperature and high light intensity. The E. grandiflorum ‘Arena pink’, 'Rosina blue' and ‘Aube cocktail’ increase fresh weight 4.7g to 8.7g, plant height 2.5cm to 8.7 cm, stem diameter 0.4mm and so no. Furthermore, the shading treatments also decrease the percentage of leaf tip burn 30% to 40%. 80% shading treatment also increases flower fresh weight 0.2g to 0.6g, 1.6 to 4.6 more flora buds, and 0.6 to 1.6 more petals per flower. In three cultivars, ‘Rosina blue’ has more apparent result on full-blooming time via different shading percentage treatments. The time for cut flower harvest delay 7 to 11 days by 80% shading treatment.

(10). The Effects of shading treatment on the plant characteristics and quality of Eustoma grandiflorum second-flowering spikes

This experiment is investigating the effects of shading treatment on the quality of Eustoma grandiflorum ‘Voyage green’, 'Chou Cream' and ‘Diamond Picotee’second-flowering spikes. The results showed that the highest temperature and soil temperature of shading treatment area were lower than the control group 2-4.8 ℃. Shading treatment group performed better cut flower traits, such as plant height increased 8-14 cm, and slightly increased number of branches. The average internode length is longer than the control group about 1 to 1.5 cm. As for flowering characteristics, the total flower number of second-flowering spikes of shading treatment group is more than control group about 2 to 5 flowers. Peduncle length increased approximately 1 to 2 cm weaker than the control group due to less light quantity of shading treatment. Shading treatment can dense the flowering period and delay the flowering about 7 days. It can be one of the strategies for production adjustment. The vase life has no significant difference between two groups, but the flower blooming rate in the first three days of vase period has better performance in shading treatment group.

(11). The Effect of High Pressure Sodium Lamp on Onc. Gower Ramsey ‘Honey Angel’ Flowering and Flower Quality

The purposes of this experiment were regulation of Onc. Gower Ramsey ‘Honey Angel’ flowering perid and upgrade of inflorescence quality. All of plants were cut out new bud on June and used 400W high pressure sodium lamp in end-of –day lighting from October 1st to harvest. Treatments fot quality included: horizontal distances from 1.7M under the lamp 4.5M and 9.0M 2 hours lighting; 4.5M, 9.0M and 13.5M 3 hours lighting; 4.5M, 9.0M 4 hours lighting and control.The high pressure sodium lamp lighting increased the length of flower stalk, flower part, the lowest branch and branch number of flower stalk. The 2 hours (4.5M, 9.0M), 3 hours (4.5M, 9.0M, 13.5M), 4 hours (4.5M, 9.0M) lighting and control, proportion of grade A were 10%, 30%, 46.7%, 46.7%, 43.3%, 23.3%, 36.7% and 0% respectively.The high pressure sodium lamp could improve the appearance quality of oncidium cut flower and increased the proportion of grade A cut flower. Treatments for harvest included: 2hours, 3hours, 4hours lighting and control. The effects of harvest regulation: 2 hours delayed to February ~ March next year, 3 hours and 4 hours delayed to February ~ April next year, and control remained on December ~ February and March next year.We concluded that the cutting out new bud on June with the pressure sodium lamp in end-of-day lighting could regulate oncidim harvest and improved cut flower quality.

(12). MS Medium and Different Concentrations of N6-Benzylaminopurine on Stem Segments Cultureand Plant Growth of Nobile type Dendrobium

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of different media on stem segments culture of three nobile types Dendrobium, Red Emperor (RE), Oriental Smile (C-12) and Angel baby `Love Pocket´ (PL). Results showed that except cultivar PL, shoot regeneration rates of RE and C-12 cultivars were increased in media with BAP (N6-Benzylaminopurine), but there was no significant difference between BAP 1 and 2 ppm treatments. The regenerated shoots were then transferred to F2 medium which had no plant growth regulators added. After 30 days of culture, different cultivars showed different growth characteristics; the plant fresh weight 132~718 mg, stem length 10~32.6 mm, number of leaves 2.2~5.9, number of nodes 2~5.2, number of buds 1~2.4, number of roots 0.8~5.1 and root length 1.9~14.1 mm. The explants which originally cultured in MS+1 ppm BAP media had better growth and development.

(13). Effects of Pour-through Medium Solution Testing Method on the Fertilization Management of Oriental Cymbidium

The fertilization management of oriental cymbidium was varied upon cultivation condition and varieties. The preliminary studies has indicated that it was feasible to apply pour-through medium solution testing method (PT) on oriental cymbidium. This study is attempted to set up a standard procedure for PT via determining an optimum range of medium EC and pH onto oriental cymbidium. Five farms with 500-pot samples from the Yuchi, Nantou, Taiwan, were randomly selected to the analysis of EC and pH of medium and the performance of plant growth characteristics. The results show that the pH value of leachate extracted from the same farms and varieties was little change among April, July and October. However, the leachate EC were variable due to fertilization. In April and October, the leachate EC is about 0.11 to 2.06 dS•m -1, average in 1.09 ± 0.50 dS•m -1; and that in non-fertilization was approximately lower in around 0.01 to 0.68 dS•m -1, average in 0.35 ± 0.12 dS•m -1. Therefore periodic testing leachate pH with a stable value becomes crucial for the medium fertilzation management.

(14). The Compactness Efforts of Sphagnum Moss on the Growth of Doritaenopsis

The purpose of this study was to explore the compactness efforts of sphagnum moss on the growth and nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium uptake of Doritaenopsis. The cultivars including Dtps. Mount Lip ‘Chou’, Dtps. Jiaho Kitty Face ‘Rainbow’ and Dtps. Taida Sweet Vivien ‘Alice’ were tested and substrate compactness treatments were designed as 7.5cm pots filled with 25g, 50g and 75g of sphagnum moss; 10.5 cm pots filled with 90g, 120g and 150g of sphagnum moss. The results indicated that the air-filled porosity of the sphagnum moss in the fixed container were decreases with the increase of the filling amount of the substrate,but increase in water capacity and the bulk density. The growth characteristics and flower quality of the Dtps. Mount Lip ‘Chou’ cultivar growing in 7.5cm pots with 50 and 75g substrate treatment were better than that with 25g substrate treatment; but no significant differences among those in the 10.5cm pot treatments. Dtps. Jiaho Kitty Face ‘Rainbow’ cultivar 7.5 cm pots of 75g the sphagnum moss treatment of growth characteristics better than the flower stalk of length by 50g the sphagnum moss treatment better than the other treatments; no significant difference between the 10.5cm pots of different treatments. Dtps. Taida Sweet Vivien ‘Alice’ cultivar growing both in 7.5cm pots with 50 and 75g substrate obtained better better performance in leaf length and leaf width and the length of flower stalk was longer in 50g treatment. As for the theatment of 10.5 cm pots filled with 150g substrate also showed the better performance. The chemical component of nitrogen, phosphorous and potassium in the Doritaenopsis and plant fresh weight and dry weight, were induced with the increase amount of sphagnum moss medium filled. However, on the basis of revenue considerations, it is better to grow Doritaenopsis both in 7.5cm pots filled with 50g substrate and in 10.5cm pots filled with 90g ones.

(15). Studies on the N, P, K, Ca and Mg Uptake Rate of Cymbidium Orchid

The objective of this research was to evaluate the N, P, K, Ca and Mg uptake rate of Cymbidium Orchid at different growth stages. Three varieties i.e. 1) ‘Gust moon’, 2) ‘Kenny’ and 3) ‘Serena’ were conducted. Plant samples including the shoot, root, pseudo bulb and new bud were collected at vegetative growth stage on autumn 2009 & 2010, and these samped as well at flowering stage on spring 2010 & 2011. The results indicated that there were slight different on the content of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and dry weight of different plant parts and different varieties of Cymbidium Orchid. The contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of Cymbidium Orchid were 9.35-18.9, 1.43-3.55, 6.90-23.0, 5.23-14.6 and 2.03-3.40 g/kg at vegetative growth stage in autumn, respectively. At this time, the N, P and K contents of new bud and the Ca in pseudo bulb were higher than those in other plant parts, and the Mg content of different plant parts had not significant difference. The contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of Cymbidium Orchid were 6.65-14.5, 1.45-3.20, 8.06-22.8, 6.50-14.3 and 1.66-2.91 g/kg at flowering stage in spring, respectively. At this time, the N, P and K contents of flower stalk and the Ca in pseudo bulb were higher than those in other plant parts, and the Mg content of different plant parts had not significant difference. The results farther indicated that the N uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 80% and 20% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The P, K and Ca uptake of Cymbidium Orchid were 70% and 30% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The Mg uptake of Cymbidium Orchid were 95% and 5% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The uptake of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of Cymbidium Orchid were 410, 75.4, 486, 278 and 86.9 mg/plant at vegetative growth stage in autumn, respectively. The uptake of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of Cymbidium Orchid were 486, 105, 631, 391 and 88.8 mg/plant at flowering stage in spring, respectively.