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Soil and Fertilizer Research


(1). Foliar Spray of Potassium and Calcium Solutions on the Leaf and Fruit Quality Performance of Guava

This study was conducted in a guava farm located in Hsichou Township, Changhua, Taiwan. In consideration of the results from both leaf and fruit, it is recommended to administrate 10 mM potassium chloride and calcium chloride at 7-10 days of interval to enhance traits of the blade, especialty the leaf thickness, and also, to administrate 40 mM calcium chloride to increase the number of guava fruit pulp rate and nutrient content.

(2). Effects of Different Amounts of Nitrogen Fertilizer Application on the Rice Production

The two cultivars of Tainung No. 71 and Tainan No. 11 were tested in the first and the second crop, respectively. Through the multiple regression analysis (r=0.62**, P≤0.05, n=20), 90% of the maximum yield, around 7,000 kg ha -1, was obtained by the application of 130 kg N ha -1. The result inclicated that nitrogen content in brown rice was induced with the increase of application rate of nitrogen fertilizer, however, reduced in potassium content revesely. It could conclude that the amount of nitrogen fertilizer application is signficant influence both on the coarse grain yield and quality of rice.

(3). Study on the Uptake Pattern of N, P, K, Ca and Mg nutrient in Cymbidium Orchid

Three varieties: 1) ‘Gust moon’, 2) ‘Kenny’ and 3) ‘Serena’ were conducted. The results indicated that the N uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 80% and 20% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The P, K and Ca uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 70% and 30% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively. The Mg uptakes of Cymbidium Orchid were 95% and 5% at vegetative growth stage and at flowering stage, respectively.

(4). Effects of Phosphorus-Solublizing Bacteria and Phosphate Fertilizer on the Growth of Eggplant

There were significant effects on the growth of eggplant with applying phosphate-solubilizing bacteria in alkaline soil (Bray no.1 extracted P>120 mg/kg). However, the application of phosphate-solubilizing bacteria and suitable amount of phosphate fertilizer was appropriated for eggplant growth.

(5). Study of Soil Salt Accumulation under Strutural Facility in the Central Taiwan

This reveald that soil salt accumulation is occurred under strutural facility in central Taiwan and most of salt accumulation is concentrated in 0~5 cm soil layer. The ion concentration that affected E.C. value of soil extracts under strutural facility is SO 4 2- and NO 3 -.

(6). Effects of Azolla and Organic Fertilizer on the Cultivation of Organic Rice

The results indicated that the fresh weight of weeds in rice field decreased about 86.2-95.9% on the treatment of Azolla than the check. The yield of organic rice on the application of Azolla increased about 5.1-5.6% in first crop and increased about 4.8-6.6% in second crop than the check, respectively. Therefore, the application rate of nitrogen should be 112.5 kg/ha in first crop and 97.5 kg/ha in second crop with the application of Azolla.

(7). Effects of Compost and Liquid Organic Fertilizer on the Culture of Organic Tomato ( Lycopersicon esculentum Mill) and Eggplant ( Soanum melongena L.)

The treatments of bagasse sawdust compost 20 t/ha with liquid organic fertilizer 20 l/ha and bagasse sawdust compost 60 t/ha with liquid organic fertilizer 40 l/ha were appropriated and suitable for organic tomato and eggplant, respectively. However, correct and suitable use of compost may increase and maintain the conditions of soil fertility.

(8). Effects of Organic Fertilizers on the Growth of Calla Lily (Zantedeschia Spreng.)

The field results indicated that the number of leaf and survival rate of calla lily at the cut-flower stage, and the diameter, fresh weight, dry weight of the tuber at the tuber harvested stage were found had better responses with the application of bagase-sawdust compost and dairy compost than that with the application of soybean meal. This field result was coordinate with the fact that the survival rate of the tuber at the tuber harvested stage with the application of bagase-sawdust compost was about 50.7%-62.5%, and was significantly higher than that with the application of soybean meal (29.4%). However, the survival rate of the tuber was not significantly different between the application of 10 t/ha and 5 t/ha of bagase -sawdust compost.

(9). The Effects of Different Concentrations of Potassium Fertilizer Application on the Nobile-type Dendrobium Growth

This study aimed to investigate the effects of different concentrations potassium fertilizer (K 2O: 0, 100, 200, 300, 400 mg/L) on Dendrobium To My Kids ‘Smile’ g rowth characteristics and q uality of flowers . The results showed that plant height were not significantly different among different concentrations potassium fertilizer treatments after transplanting 75 and 115 days. However, plant height applying K 2O 200 mg/L treatment is 59.2 cm higher than applying K 2O 0 mg/L treatment which is 52.9 cm after transplanting 195 days. Plant leaf number, leaf length and pseudobulb width among treatments was not significantly different, but leaf width, pseudobulb nodes number and pseudobulb thickness are significantly different after transplanting 195 days. The application of K 2O 100-200 mg/L treatment has better effects. The flowering node number and flower diameter (transverse diameter) among different concentrations of K 2O treatment has no significantly difference after transplanting 195 days . On the other hand, the total flower number among treatments has significantly differences that applying K 2O 200-400 mg/L has more flower number than application of K 2O 0 mg/L . To sum up, Den. To My Kids ‘Smile’ in the application of N 150 mg/L, P 2O 5 50 mg/L, and K 2O 100-200 mg/L every two weeks is better.

(10). Research of Composting with Garden Tree Leaves

Utilization of compost made from plant and livestock waste in agricultural system is crucial for the maintenance of soil fertility. The objective of this experiment is to develop an efficient way in the composting process of organic residues, such as garden tree leaves and sawdust. The result of composting experiment indicated that the leaves waste compost could use crushed tree leaves 1,000kg as C source, the rapeseed meal 80kg or urea 9kg as N source. The temperature of leaf waste composts were rised to 60 ℃ at days 6-11 during composting with the inoculation of isolates of Bacillus sp. (TCB 9401) and Trichoderma sp. (TCFO 9409). Whenever, the C/N ratio of those leaf waste composts were reduced to 15-16 at days 60 after composting. At the same time, the germination rates of the Pak-choi ( Brassica campestris L. Chinensis Group) were 83-87% of the germination test by used the water extracted solution from those leaf waste composts (compost /water with 1/10 by volume ratio). Therefore, those leaf waste composts were closed to stable in the composting process.

(11). Evaluation on the Effects of Microorganism and Growth Medium Waste in Processing Sawdust Growth Medium for Pleurotus eryngii

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of microorganism and growth medium waste in processing sawdust growth medium for Pleurotus eryngii. The four treatments conducted that including fresh sawdust (FS) 100%, fresh sawdust 100% + microorganisms (FS+M), fresh sawdust 75% + growth medium waste 25% (FS+GMW) and fresh sawdust 75% + growth medium waste 25%+ microorganisms (FS+GMW+M). The microorganisms were incorpated into sawdust materials before composting. The inoculated isolates were Trichoderma sp. (TCFO 9409) and Bacillus sp. (TCB 9722). The results indicated that in each treatment, the pH, the contents of N, P, K, Ca and Mg of maturated material were increasing; the EC and the contents of organic carbon of maturated material were reducing during maturating process. The temperature of treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M rose up to 60 ℃ at day 15, and go down to 50 ℃ at day 60 during maturating process. At day 60, the C/N ratios of maturated material in treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M were 74.8 and 72.1, respectively, and the maturated material in those treatments were reached to be stable in the maturated process. The temperature of treatment FS and FS+M rose up to 60 ℃ at date 45 and 30 during maturating process, respectively. The temperature of those treatments go down to 50 ℃ at day 75 during maturated process. At the same time, the C/N ratio of maturated material in treatment FS+GMW and FS+GMW+M were 74.8 and 72.1, respectively, and the maturated material in those treatments were reached to be stable in the maturated process. Therefore, the C/N ratio of sawdust material in the range of 72-82 could be appropriate for Pleurotus eryngii.



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