(1). Effects of Bioagent Bacillus amyloliquefaciens WG6-14 on the Growth Promotion and Yield Enhancement of Common Bean
The biocontrol agentBacillus amyloliquefaciens WG6-14 10 6 cfu/ml inoculati on with common bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) seeds had been found to be able to inhibit the microbial growth and enhance germination rate of common bean. Combined inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens and Rhizobium leguminosarum biovar phaseoli showed to increase in nodulation rate. B. amyloliquefaciens inoculation could increase germination rate of common bean seed. In the field test, inoculation of B. amyloliquefaciens showed to the better performance in germination rate, nutrient uptake rate, plant height, number of nodules, nodulation rate, nodule weight, pod yield and total biomass of common bean than uninoculated control one.
(2). Field Evaluation of Attractiveness of Sex Pheromone of the Rice Stem Borer Moth, Chilo suppressalis (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae)
Rice stem borer, Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae), was an important insect pest during rice cultivation periods. The synthetic sex pheromone lure for C. supprsssalis was tested for its attractiveness and used for detecting and trapping C. supprsssalis moth in the rice paddy field. Results showed that three components of Z-11-hexadecenal (Z-11-16Ald), Z-13-octadecenal (Z-13-18Ald) and Z-9-hexadecenal (Z-9-16Ald) synthetic sex pheromone lure had better captured capacity for C. supprsssalis. Pheromone lures stuffed in rubber septum was better in attractiveness than those in polyethylene microtube, and its effectiveness can last two month. The number of moths captured by pheromone trap was higher than by light trap. The sex pheromone lure can be used as a tool for monitoring C. medinalis moths.
(3). Field Evaluation of Synthetic Pheromone Blends of the Rice Leaffolder Moth, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis (Lepidoptera: Crambidae)
Rice leaf folder, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis Guene, is a seriously insect pest in the cultivated periods of second-cropping rice. Field bioassays using three types of synthetic sex pheromone blends, included Japanese, Indian and Philippine for the rice leaffolder moth. Results showed that only the Japanese blend attracted significant numbers of male C. medinalis, while the Indian and the Philippine blends only showed little attractiveness to the males. Pheromone lures stuffed in polyethylene microtube was better in attractiveness than rubber septum, and its effectiveness could last one month. More C. medinalis moths were caught in traps at heights of 0 m than at 0.2 and 0.4 m above rice plants level. The placement of traps were also affected the attractiveness of C. medinalis moths, and had significant different. Preliminary comparison of efficiency and the fluctuation pattern of C. medinalis moths catch between the pheromone traps and sweeping nets, they had similar trend in the field. The synthetic sex pheromone blend ocould be used as the tool for monitoring C. medinalis moths in Taiwan.
(4). Identification ofFusarium spp. Caused to the Malabar Chestnut Basal Rot and Evaluation on the Selected Fungicide
The basal rot symptoms of Malabar chestnut, Pachiramacrocarpa, had been discovered in Sijhou Township, Changhua County on November, 2010. The basal rot symptoms are developed during growth season in fields or transportation post-harvest. The symptomless infested plants may further develop basal rot symptoms. Three Fusarium spp. strains, TCF-1, TCF-2, and TCF-3, were isolated. These strains had been demonstrated as Malabar chestnut basal rot pathogens by Koch’s postulate. In addition, these strains were further identified as Fusarium solani by their morphological characters and sequence blasted of ITS and eEF1- a DNA fragments. In order to control this disease of Malabar chestnut with fungicides, twelve fungicides were also evaluated in this study. Results showed the mycelium growth of TCF-1 was completely inhibited by 50% of Prochloraz-manganese WP 2000x dilution and 25.9%. It concluded that fungicides application on root of Malabar chestnut and soil was a good strategy to control basal rot disease.
(5). The Limited Spread Performance of Rice Water Weevil ( Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) in Changhua County, Taiwan
The distribution range of Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus was first recorded in Siansi township, Changhua county, central Taiwan in 2001, then introduced into Changhua city in 2008. Up to 2012, it had dispersed to Huatan township and its dispersal trend tended to slow obviously. The dispersal velocity of L. oryzophilus was merely 0.7 to 4.2 km per year in Changhua county. The time courses of rice seedling transplanting had started from southern part townships, included Erhshui, Sijhou and Zhutang, etc., in early Feb, respectively. Then, the practice was western and northern toward. The Shengang township which located on the tip of northwest, its rice seedling transplanting time had late to mid- Mar. However, as the distribution of L. oryzophilus had restricted on the northern part of Changhua county, it suggested that the different of time courses of rice seedling transplanting had affected the expanded of L. oryzophilus. Otherwise, the dropped seed cultivation was common management practice in northern part of Changhua county in the rice second cropping. More L. oryzophilus adults were attracted by the piece of rice seedling in transplanting treatment than dropped seed treatment, also responded on the adult number of next generation.
(6). The Occurrence and Survey of the Bakanae and White-tip Diseases on Rice in Central Taiwan
The bakanae disease Fusarium moniliforme and white tip disease Aphelenchoides besseyi are rice infectious diseases by rice seed. The 28 lots of rice seeds were collected including five rice varieties from the second crop season, 2009 and the 25 lots of rice seeds from the first season, 2010. Those rice seeds were supplied by the 9 rice seedling nursery centers in central Taiwan. Combining the analyses of those data, it infer that rate of those seeds infested with the pathogen has obvious variations in the same variety of rice seeds from different places, and those seeds originated form Caotun, Wurih, Pitou and Da-an nursery centers have the highest percentage with the F. moniliforme; the higest incidence of bakanae disease on seedling from Hsichou nursery center. Besides, the result showed only part of rice seeds from Da-an, Daya, Caotun and Hsichou nursery centers can detect the A. besseyi, and the seeds from Da-an and Daya was obtained the highest incidence rate of A. besseyi. In addition, comparing the data of incidence on rice seeds, seedling and field, we suggested that the rice seeds from rice seedling nursery center which had higher percentage with the pathogen of F. moniliforme and A. besseyi, that fields neighbored the nursery center could find the disease, then the incidence would higher than other township.