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第69期--2000年12月出刊

首頁 > 出版刊物 > 研究彙報 > 第69期--2000年12月出刊 > 米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究

米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究

研究彙報第六十九期 , Page 1-11,出版時間:2000- 12, 詳細內容

  
米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究
  
作者:洪梅珠
  
摘  要

   利用40個秈稉稻品種,探討品種間米飯澱粉特性之差異,及其與食味特性間之相關關係,以供為選拔優良食味品系之參考。結果發現白米的直鏈澱粉含量、米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長,及於最大吸收波長、520 nm、600 nm、620 nm、630 nm、680 nm波長下之吸光值與620 BV/520 BV的比值,在品種間均有顯著差異存在。若將參試的水稻品種區分為台灣稉稻、日本稉稻、台灣秈稻(低直鏈澱粉含量)、台灣秈稻(高直鏈澱粉含量)及IRRI秈稻等五個類型時,發現白米的直鏈澱粉含量以高直鏈澱粉含量的台灣秈稻品種最高,而以日本?稻品種最低。米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長及於最大吸收波長、520 nm、600 nm、620 nm、630 nm、680 nm波長下之吸光值與620 BV/520 BV的比值,仍以高直鏈澱粉含量的台灣秈稻品種最高,而以低直鏈澱粉含量的日本?稻品種及台灣秈稻品種最低。一般直鏈澱粉含量及米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長高的品種,其於最大吸收波長、520 nm、600 nm、620 nm、630 nm、680 nm波長下之吸光值及620 BV/520 BV的比值亦較高。

  就綜合40個秈稉稻品種及14個秈稻品種而言,白米的直鏈澱粉含量、米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長,及於最大吸收波長、520 nm、600 nm、620 nm、630 nm、680 nm波長下之吸光值與620 BV/520 BV比值,除與米飯香味及硬度無顯著相關外,均與米飯的外觀、口味、黏度及食味總評呈顯著負相關;若就26個?稻品種而言,沒有任何食味特性與9個澱粉特性呈顯著相關,若就35個低直鏈澱粉含量品種(含秈稻及稉稻)而言,除黏度與米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長呈顯著負相關外,亦沒有任何食味特性與澱粉特性呈顯著相關。

  本研究結果顯示直鏈澱粉含量及米飯蒸煮液碘呈色度的高低,可能不是明顯影響?稻及低直鏈澱粉含量品種食味的良劣的重要因子,但可能為秈稻或綜合高低直鏈澱粉含量品種族群中的食味品質好壞的因子之一。因此,未來在秈稻育種上或高低直鏈澱粉含量品種雜交後代的選拔上,可嘗試選育直鏈澱粉含量低及米飯蒸煮液碘呈色度低的品系,以達到提高食味品質的目的。

關鍵字:稻米、澱粉特性、直鏈澱粉含量、米飯食味。

The Relation between Palatability and Starch Characteristics of Cooked Rice
Mei-Chu Hong
ABSTRACT
  Forty indica and japonica rice varieties were used to investigate the variation of starch characteristics among varieties, and then to explore their relationship with palatability characteristics of cooked rice. The information may provide useful criteria for breeders for selecting the lines with better palatability. These results showed that there were significant differences among varieties in amylose content, maximum absorption band (MAB), and starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV. Among five different types of varieties (Taiwan japonica rice, Japan japonica rice, Taiwan indica rice with low amylose content, Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content and IRRI rice), Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content had the highest amylose content of milled rice. Japan japonica rice had the lowest amylose content of milled rice. Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content also had the highest maximum absorption band (MAB), and starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV. Japan japonica rice and Taiwan indica rice with low amylose content had the lowest maximum absorption band (MAB), and starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV. In general, the rice variety with high amylose content and maximum absorption band also had higher starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV.
  For 40 tested varieties and 14 indica rice, amylose content, maximum absorption band (MAB), and starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV were not correlated with aroma and hardness of cooked rice. But they were negatively correlated with appearance, flavor, cohesion and overall sensory.
  For 26 japonica rice, there was no correlated between starch characteristics and palatability characteristics of cooked rice. For 35 rice varieties with low amylose content, only maximum absorption band was negatively correlated with cohesion of cooked rice. Therefore,the present results suggest that the amylose content and maximum absorption band, and starch-iodine blue value at MAB, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of 620 BV to 520 BV may be utilized in the breeding program for improving the eating quality of indica rice or hybrid progeny of high and low amylose content varieties.
Key words: rice, starch characteristics, amylose content, palatability.
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