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行政院農業委員會臺中區農業改良場

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第74期--2002年3月出刊

首頁 > 出版刊物 > 研究彙報 > 第74期--2002年3月出刊 > 台灣稉稻新品系之米質

台灣稉稻新品系之米質

研究彙報第七十四期 , Page 25-43,出版時間:2002- 3, 詳細內容
 
 
台灣稉稻新品系之米質
 
作者:洪梅珠 許志聖 陳隆澤 陳素娥 林國清 李超運 邱運全 黃秋蘭
 
摘  要
 
   分析各區農業改良場及農試所送檢 梗 稻新品系 ( 種 ) 之米質,共計 141 個樣品.其中 23 個樣品來自桃園區農業改良場, 14 個樣品來自台中區農業改良場, 32 個樣品來自嘉義分所, 22 個樣品來自嘉義分場, 16 個樣品來自高雄區農業改良場, 13 個樣品來自台東區農業改良場, 21 個樣品來自花蓮區農業改良場。分析結果發現不同水稻品系間之碾米品質亦有不同,完整米率的變異比糙米率大。送檢的樣品以短粒居多,僅少數為中短粒,大部份為粗圓形,僅有一個樣品為中間形。送檢的樣品中亦有白米外觀比台農 67 號好、蛋白質含量比台農 67 號低的新品系,一般以中~低糊化溫度、低直鏈澱粉含量、軟膠性質的品系居多。糙米率以嘉義分所送檢的樣品最高,花蓮區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低;白米率以桃園區農業改良場送檢的樣品最高,花蓮區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低;完整米率以嘉義分場送檢的樣品最高,台東區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低;透明度以台東區及花蓮區農業改良場送檢的樣品最好,桃園區農業改良場送檢的樣品最差;心腹背白以高雄區農業改良場送檢的樣品最高,花蓮區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低;蛋白質含量以嘉義分所送檢的樣品最高,台東區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低;直鏈澱粉含量以台東區農業改良場送檢的樣品最高,花蓮區農業改良場送檢的樣品最低。目前國內稉稻育種目標,著重在選拔具抗病蟲害及優良米飯食味之品系,但為開發米食多樣化,提升稻米附加價值,建議今後亦應加強特殊用途稻米之選拔。
關鍵字: 稉稻、米質。
The Grain Quality of Newly Releasing Japonica Rice Lines in Taiwan
Mei-Chu Hong, Chih-Sheng Sheu, Lung-Che Chen, Su-Er Chen, Gow-Ching Lin, Chau-Yunn Lee, Yun-Chian Chiou and Chiou-Lan Huang
ABSTRACT
   Samples from Taitung and Hualien DAIS had the best translucency of milled rice, but those from Taoyuan DAIS had the worst. Samples from Kaohsiung DAIS had the highest value in the sum of white belly, center and back, but samples from Hualien DAIS had the lowest. Samples from Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station had the highest protein content, but those from Taitung DAIS had the lowest. Samples form Taitung DAIS had the highest amylose content, but those from Hualien DAIS had the lowest.
  Recently, for the japonica rice, breeders focus on selecting new lines having disease-insect resistance and high eating quality. However, to expand the diversity and to stimulate the consumption of rice diet, it is important to put an emphasis on selecting specific lines, which can be used in the form of processed products.
  In the first crop of 1999, a total of 141 newly nominated japonica rice lines were collected to test their grain quality. Among these 141 samples, 23 were selected from Taoyuan District Agricultural Improvement Station (DAIS), 14 from Taichung DAIS, 32 from Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station, 22 from Chiayi branch station, 16 from Kaohsiung DAIS, 13 from Taitung DAIS and 21 from Hualien DAIS. The results showed that there were differences in milling quality among those new lines. The coefficient of variation of head rice rate was larger than that of brown rice rate and milled rice rate. Most tested lines belonged to short grain size, and the short-medium grain size were very few. In addition, most of tested lines belonged to bold shape, and only one line belonged to intermediate shape. Among the tested lines, they had better grain appearance and lower protein content lines than Tainung 67. Most lines belonged to medium or low gelatinization temperature, low amylose content, and soft gel consistency. Samples from Chiayi Agricultural Experiment Station showed the highest value in brown rice rate, but those from Hualien DAIS showed the lowest. Sample from Taoyuan DAIS had the highest milled rice, but those from Hualien DAIS had the lowest. Samples from Chiayi branch station had the highest head rice rate, but those from Taitung DAIS had the lowest.
Key words: japonica rice, grain quality.
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