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行政院農業委員會臺中區農業改良場

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第79期--2003年6月出刊

首頁 > 出版刊物 > 研究彙報 > 第79期--2003年6月出刊 > 米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究(二)

米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究(二)

研究彙報第七十九期 , Page 41 -50,出版時間:2003- 6, 詳細內容
 
 
米飯食味品質與澱粉特性間相關之研究(二)
 

作者:洪梅珠

 

摘  要

 

  利用40個二期作生產的秈梗稻品種,探討品種間米飯澱粉特性之差異,及其與食味特性間之相關關係, 以供為二期作 選 拔優良食味品系之參考。結果發現二期作白米的直鏈澱粉含量、米飯蒸煮液的碘呈色最大吸收波長,及 O.D.max , O.D.520 , O.D.600 , O.D.620 , O.D.630 , O.D.680 等吸光值與 O.D.620/520 ,在品種間均有顯著差異存在。若將參試的水稻品種區分為台灣梗稻、日本梗稻、台灣秈稻 ( 低直鏈澱粉含量 ) 、台灣秈稻 ( 高直鏈澱粉含量 ) 及 IRRI 秈稻等五個類型時,發現白米的直鏈澱粉含量以高直鏈澱粉含量的台灣秈稻品種最高,而以日本梗稻品種最低。米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長及 O.D.max , O.D.520 , O.D.600 , O.D.620 , O.D.630 , O.D.680 等吸光值與 O.D.620/520 ,仍以高直鏈澱粉含量的台灣秈稻品種最高,而以低直鏈澱粉含量的日本梗稻品種及台灣秈稻品種最低。一般直鏈澱粉含量及米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長高的品種,其 O.D.max , O.D.520 , O.D.600 , O.D.620 , O.D.630 , O.D.680 等吸光值與 O.D.620/520 亦較高。

  就綜合 40 個秈梗稻品種及 14 個秈稻品種而言,白米的直鏈澱粉含量、米飯蒸煮液的最大吸收波長,及 O.D.max , O.D.520 , O.D.600 , O.D.620 , O.D.630 , O.D.680 等吸光值與 O.D.620/520 ,均與米飯的食味總評呈顯著負相關;若就 26 個梗稻品種及 35 個低直鏈澱粉含量而言,僅 O.D.620/520 與米飯的食味總評呈顯著負相關。顯示二期作良質水稻的選拔, O.D.620/520 為重要指標,若為秈稻或高低直鏈澱粉含量品種雜交後代的選拔,尚可增列直鏈澱粉含量為選拔指標,以達到提高食味品質的目的。

關鍵字: 稻米、澱粉特性、直鏈澱粉含量、米飯食味、二期作 。

The Relation between Palatability Characteristics and Starch Characteristics of Cooked Rice (II)

Mei-Chu Hong

ABSTRACT

Forty indica and japonica rice varieties planted in the second crop were used to investigate the variation of starch characteristics among varieties, and then to explore its relationship with palatability characteristics of cooked rice. The information may provide useful criteria for breeders to select the lines with better palatability in the second crop. The results showed that there were significant differences among varieties in amylose content, maximum absorption band (λmax ), and starch-iodine blue value at λmax , 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 . Among five different types of varieties (Taiwan japonica rice, Japan japonica rice, Taiwan indica rice with low amylose content, Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content and IRRI rice), Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content had the highest amylose content of milled rice. Japan japonica rice had the lowest amylose content of milled rice. Taiwan indica rice with high amylose content also had the highest maximum absorption band (λmax ), and starch-iodine blue value at λmax, 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 . Japan japonica rice and Taiwan indica rice with low amylose content had the lowest maximum absorption band (λmax ), and starch-iodine blue value at λmax , 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 . In general, the rice variety with high amylose content and maximum absorption band also had higher starch-iodine blue value at λmax , 520 nm, 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 .

For 40 tested varieties and 14 indica rice, amylose content, maximum absorption band (λmax), and starch-iodine blue value at λmax , 600 nm, 620 nm, 630 nm, 680 nm of residual liquid in cooked rice and the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 were negatively correlated with overall sensory. For 26 japonica rice and 35 rice varieties with low amylose content, only the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 was negatively correlated with overall sensory. Therefore,the present results suggest that the the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 may be utilized in the breeding program for improving the eating quality of japonica rice or low amylose content varieties. But for indica rice or hybrid progeny of high and low amylose content varieties, except the ratio of O.D.620 to O.D.520 , amylose content may be also utilized in selecting high quality rice.

Key words: rice , starch characteristics, amylose content, palatability, second crop.
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